Adult Scoliosis: The lateral curvature of the spine, which occurs after
Algology: The science and study of pain phenomena.
Allodynia: The sensation of pain triggered by a stimulus to the skin that
is normally not painful (e.g., lightly touching a sunburn).
Analgesia: Absence or decreased pain response to stimulation that would
normally be painful.
Analgesic: Medicine used to relieve pain.
Anesthesia: Absence or partial loss of sensation.
Anesthetic: An agent (or agents) that reversibly produce anesthesia.
Angiogram: An x-ray of blood vessels leading to and in the brain, which
can be seen due to the injecting of a dye or contrast substance through a
catheter placed in the artery in the leg.
Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels using the injection of material
opaque to x-rays to give better definition to the vessels
Annulus Fibrosis: The outer, fibrous, ring-like portion of an
intervertebral disc that contains the Nucleus Pulposus (semi-gelatinous portion
of the disc) . The annulus fibrosis is constructed of several fairly strong
'bands' or 'rings' of tissue, with the outmost rings containing many nerves. It
is for this reason that damage to these outmost rings can be a source of pain by
itself. Some people have equated the annulus fibrosis to the 'radial tire'
portion of the disc.
Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: The cervical spine is
reached through a small incision in the front of the neck. The intervertebral
disc is removed and replaced with a small plug of bone, which in time will fuse
Anterior Cervical Discectomy: An operation where a small incision is made
in the front of your neck so that the cervical spine can be reached so that the
soft tissues of the neck can be separated, and the intervertebral disc and/or
bone spurs can be removed.
Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Operation where the lumbar spine is
approached through an incision in the abdomen. A portion of the affected disc
space is removed from the spine and replaced with an implant.
Anterior Spinal Fusion: Approaching the spine from the front, the
vertebral body the and or the intervertable disc is removed and a bone graft is
Anterior: Front of the body or situated nearer the front of the body. It
is often used to indicate the position of one structure relative to another. The
opposite of posterior.
Anti-inflammatory: A medicine that reduces inflammation.
Apical Vertebra: The vertebra that deviates the most from the patient's
vertical axis; the most rotated vertebra in a curve.
Atherosclerosis: Macrophages eat low density lipoproteins and
migrate into lesions in the internal layer of arteries. The smoot muscle cells
fill with fats and cholesterol and die. Platelet clots (thrombi) tend to form on
the irrigular surfaces. Heart attacks occur when the Coronary Arteries (serving
the heart muscle) are blocked by fatty plaque and/or platel closts. The muscle
issues become starved for oxygen and nutrients (Ischemia)
Articular: Pertaining to a joint.
Athralgia: Pain in or affecting a joint.
Autogenous Bone: Bone originating from the same individual (an
individual's own bone).
Baastrup d. (kissing spine) : False joint formed by wide
posterior spinous processes of the lumbar spine. This may become a source of
Backbone: See Spine.
Back Pain: Nonspecific term used to describe pain below the cervical
Bactericidal: Causing the death of bacteria.
Bacteriostatic: Inhibiting or retarding the growth of bacteria.
Banks-Dervin Rod: For scoliosis fixation; a multiple level rod that is
fixed with oblique spinous process to contralateral lamina screws.
Bell's Palsy: Paralysis of facial muscles (usually one side) due to
facial nerve dysfunction of unknown cause.
Benign: Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other
parts of the body.
Bioabsorbable Polymer: A substance, such as some plastics, which the
human body can break down and absorb.
Biocompatibility: A characteristic of some materials that when they are
inserted into the body do not produce a significant rejection or immune
Biodegradation: The breakdown of organic materials into simple chemicals
commonly found in the body.
Biopsy: Removal of a small portion of tissue, usually for the purpose of
making a diagnosis.
Blood-Brain-Barrier: The barrier which exists between the blood and the
cerebrospinal fluid which prevents the passage of various substances from the
bloodstream to the brain.
BMP-Like Products: Proteins that enhance mineralization, which can
increase bone formation.
Bohman: Posterior triple spinous process wiring technique in the cervical
spine to secure bone graft.
Bone: The hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is
primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones may
be classed as long, short, or flat.
Bone Derivative: One of the substances extracted from bone, such as bone
morphogenic proteins (BMP).
Bone Graft: Bone which is harvested from one location in an individual
and placed in another individual (allograft bone) or in a different location in
the same individual (autogenous bone).
Bone Harvesting: The removal of bone for transplantation to another site.
The most common sources are the iliac crests because these bones contain a large
amount of cancellous bone, the inner spongy part, which is useful for getting
grafts to "take."
Bone Marrow: The tissue contained within the internal cavities of the
bones. A major function of this tissue is to produce red blood cells.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2): One of a family of BMPs - naturally
occurring chemicals in the body that play a major role in bone growth. BMP-like
products: proteins that enhance mineralization, which can increase bone
Bone Plate: Usually a relatively thin metal device which is affixed to
bone via screws. Bone plates are used to immobilize bones or bone fragments such
that healing can occur.
Bone Screw: A threaded metal device which is inserted into bone. The
functions of bone screws are to immobilize bones or bone fragments or to affix
other medical devices, such as metal bone plates, to bones.
Bosworth: A fusion using an H-shaped bone graft in spondylolisthesis.
Bovine Bone Extract: ABMP derived from the bones of bovines
Brachial: Relating to the arm.
Bradford: For kyphoscoliosis deformity; staged anterior and posterior
approach for inter-body fusion and correction of deformity.
Bradycardia: Slowness of the heart rate.
Bradykinesia: Slowness in movement.
Brattstrom: Use of acrylic cement for C-1 to C-2 fusion.
Brooks and Jenkins: Loops of wire around lamina of C-1 and C-2 to hold
bone graft between lamina.
Brown-Sequard's Syndrome: Loss of sensation of touch, position sense, and
movement on the side of a spinal cord lesion, with loss of pain sensation on the
other side. Caused by a lesion limited to one side of spinal cord.
Burr: An electrical drilling tool for enlarging atrephine (circular) hole
in the cranium.
Cartilage: The thin hard rubbery layer of white glossy
tissue that covers the end of bone at a joint, providing a cushion. This tissue
allows motion to take place with a minimum amount of friction.
Cauda Equina Syndrome: Cauda equina syndrome is caused by the significant
narrowing of the spinal canal that compresses the nerve roots below the spinal
cord. Causes of this syndrome include spinal stenosis, injury(traumatic), disc
herniation, spinal tumors, meningiomas, schwannomas, ependymomas,
inflammatory conditions, and infectious conditions. Cauda equina syndrome is
considered a surgical emergency because if left untreated it can lead to
permanent loss of bowel, bladder control and leg paralysis.
Causalgia: Intense pain and sensitivity usually following injury to a
Central Nervous System (CNS): The portion of the vertebrate nervous
system consisting of the brain and spinal cord and nerve roots
Central Pain: Pain associated with a lesion or dysfunction of the central
Centrum: The body of a vertebra. A cylinder shape bone in the spine
separated by discs
Cervical Corpectomy: When a portion of the vertebra and adjacent
intervertebral discs are removed for decompression of the cervical spinal cord
and spinal nerves. A bone graft, and in some cases a metal plate and screws, is
used to stabilize the spine.
Cervical: The neck region of the spine containing the first seven
vertebrae, which curve forward.
Cholesterol: The most abundant steroid in animal tissues. Used as a vital
part of the membrane in every cell in the body. Used a precursor to hormones. It
is an animal sterol that is normally created by the liver. Without cholesterol
we would die. It can be found in animal tissues and various foods
Chronic Pain: The opposite of acute pain. Persistent, long-term pain that
serves no biological or protective purpose. With chronic pain damage or changes
in the Central Nervous System continue to send "Pain" and Inflammatory messages
to the brain long after tissues have healed. This type of pain is no longer a
'symptom' of a type of conditional tissue damage or disease but has become an
actual 'condition' or 'disease of the Central Nervous System itself, which
requires specialized treatments.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A condition of prolonged and severe tiredness or
weariness (fatigue) that is not relieved by rest and is not directly caused by
other conditions. To be diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome, the tiredness
must be severe enough to decrease ability to participate in ordinary activities
Claudication: The pain in the calf or thigh muscle that
occurs after you have walked a certain distance.
Coccyx: The region of the spine below the sacrum near the anus-also known
as the tailbone. It is the lowest part of the spinal column.
Collagen: A fibrous protein which is the principal protein and
constituent of connective tissue, such as skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage,
Compensatory Curve: A particular curve, which can be structural, above or
below a major curve which tends to maintain normal body alignment.
Compression: The act of pressing or squeezing together in the direction
of a straight line, often referring to the loss of vertebral body height either
anteriorly, posteriorly or both; the application of pressure or squeezing which
causes an increase in density and decrease dimension of a certain body.
Congenital: Present at birth and still existing after-words.
Deafferentation: Pain Pain due to the loss of normal sensory input into
the central nervous system.
Dermatomes: Areas of skin supplied by fibers of single nerve roots, which
are part of the PNS.
Disc (Intervertebral disc): The tough, cartilaginous, elastic structure
that acts as a cushion between the bodies of spinal vertebrae. The disc is made
up of an outer "annulus fibrosus" which encloses an inner "nucleus pulposus".
Disc Degeneration: The gradual or quick deterioration of the structural
and functional integrity of the disc.
Discectomy: Surgical removal of part or all of an intervertebral disc
which is placing pressure on neural elements.
Disease: An alteration in the state of the body or of some of its organs,
interrupting or disturbing the performance of the vital body functions
Disorder: (medical) a disturbance of normal functioning (Also See:
Distal: 1. Situated away from the center of the body. 2. The more (or
most) distant of two (or more) things.
Endocrine System: the glands and parts of glands that produce endocrine
secretions (hormones) that help to integrate and control bodily metabolic
activity - and which are transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has
a specific effect. These glands include especially the pituitary, thyroid,
parathyroids, adrenals, islets of Langerhans, ovaries, and testes
Epidural Injection: An injection into the outer layer of the spinal canal
(the epidural space).
Epidural: The outer layer that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Eudynia: Term used to explain experienced pain as a symptom of disease.
Also See Maldynia
Facet Joints: Also called Zygapophyseal Joints are the
flat surfaced joints at the back of the vertebrae These joints enable spinal
movement. The facets from the upper and lower vertebrae join together to form a
joint. Like other joints in the body, the moving surfaces are coated with smooth
cartilage to facilitate movement
Facet: A flat plate-like surface that functions as part of a joint- two
examples of such are in the vertebrae of the spine, and in the subtalar joint of
the ankle. Two facets of adjacent vertebrae combine to form a facet joint, which
allows motion in the spinal column.
Facetectomy: Excision or removal of a facet.
Fascia: Several layers of fibrous connective tissue that cover muscles.
Fascia extends beyond the muscle to become the tendon that attaches the muscle
Fatigue Fracture: A fracture occurring in bone or in other materials due
to repeated stress as opposed to a single event causing an injury.
Fibromyalgia: A a chronic disorder that causes widespread pain,
tenderness(sometimes extreme) in the muscles and soft tissue (including tender
points) of the body. It can also be associated with sleep problems,
fatigue, and a variety of other symptoms. Less common symptoms can include
swallowing, breathing, bowel and bladder problems.
Fibrosis: The replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue.
Flexion: Bending Forward
Foramen: (AKA Neuroforomen:) A natural passageway or opening in bone
through which pass the nerve roots of the spianl cord. The plural of foramen is
known as "foramina" (Seems that spelling used can include both foramen or
Foraminotomy When the foramin (the area where the nerve roots exit
the spinal canal) is removed to increase space over a nerve canal. This surgery
can be done alone or along with a laminotomy;
Fracture: A disruption or 'break' in the normal continuity of bone.
Typical fracture types are: Greenstick, Spiral, comminuted, transverse,
compound, and compression.
HDL: (High-Density Lipoprotein) Also known as "Good Cholesterol" Is a
lipoprotein of blood plasma that is composed of a high proportion of protein
with little triglyceride and cholesterol and that is associated with decreased
probability of developing atherosclerosis. — compare LDL, VLDL, LP(a)
Heat Therapy: The application of heat to the muscles, which dilates blood
vessels of the muscle, increasing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the
muscles. The application of heat also stimulates the sensory receptors in the
skin which decreases the transmissions of pain signals to the brain relieving
Herniated Disc: Extrusion of part of the nucleus pulposus material
through a defect in the annulus fibrosis.. 2nd defn: A disc that is
displaced from its position between two vertebrae, with injury to the annular
Histopathology: Is when the cells and /or organs in the body are not
functioning properly. This can result from the nerve not supplying the correct
message to the cells/organs. This can lead to many problems.
Hormone: A substance, usually a peptide or steroid, a product of living
cells that circulates in body fluids or sap and produces a specific effect on
the activity of cells remote from its point of origin; especially one exerting a
stimulatory effect on a cellular activity such as growth or metabolism
Hyperesthesia: Abnormal, increased, acute sensitivity to sensory
stimulation of the skin.
Hypertrophic: To grow abnormally large
Hypoalgesia: Abnormal, diminished, decreased sensitivity to sensory
stimulation of the skin.
LP(a): Is a relative of LDL or bad cholesterol. The difference between
Lp(a) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) is apolipoprotein apo(a), (a
glycoprotein structurally similar to plasminogen), the precursor of plasmin, the
fibrinolytic enzymeIs a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular
disease. — compare HDL, VLDL. LDL
LDL: (Low-Density-Lipoprotein) Also known as "Bad Cholesterol" is a
lipoprotein of blood plasma that is composed of a moderate proportion of protein
with little triglyceride and a high proportion of cholesterol and that is
associated with increased probability of developing atherosclerosis —compare
HDL, VLDL, LP(a)
Lamina: The flattened or arched part of the vertebral arch, forming the
roof of the spinal canal. The posterior part of the spinal ring that covers the
spinal cord or nerves.
Laminectomy: The excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae. A
laminectomy is done to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve roots
which emerge from the spinal canal itself.
Laminoplasty: A posterior approach in which the spine is reached from the
back of the neck and involves the surgical reconstruction of the posterior
elements of the spine to make more room for the spinal canal.
Laminotomy: When only a small portion of the lamina is removed to relieve
pressure on the nerve roots;
Laser: A device that creates and uses Light Amplified by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation-or in other words, a powerful focused beam of light. The
beam of light, can be used for several different applications like microsurgery,
diagnostic purposes, cauterization, and several others. A common application is
in microsurgery, where it is used to cut and remove tissue.
Lateral: Situated away from the midline of the body. In anatomy, it is
referred to as the side of the body or body part that is further from the center
of the body.
Ligament: A band of flexible, fibrous connective tissue that is attached
at the end of a bone near a joint. The ligament functions to attach bones to one
another, to provide joint stability, and to prevent or limit some joint motion.
Ligaments: Connect bone to bone and provides structural Ligaments are
composed of fibrous connective tissues made up of densely packed collagen fibers
and when injured they can take a long time to heal because their blood supply is
Lipoprotein: any of a large class of conjugated proteins composed of a
complex of protein and lipid —see HDL, LDL, VLDL
Lordosis: An abnormal increase in the normal curvature (lordotic ) of the
lumbar section of the spine.
Lumbago: A term, non-medical in origin, referring to pain in the lumbar
region of the spine.
Lumbar: The lumbar section of the spine consists of five vertebrae,
referred to as L1 through L5 and is the lower part of the
spine between the thoracic region and the sacrum. There are five lumbar nerves
correspond to the five lumbar vertebrae.
Maldynia: Term used to explain pain as the primary disease Also See:
Medial Facetectomy: When part of the facet (a bony structure in the
spinal canal) is removed to increase the space;
Medial: Situated closer to the midline of the body. It is the opposite of
Minimally Invasive Surgery: Surgery requiring small incisions, which most
often involves using the aid of endoscopic visualization.
Muscle Spasm: A sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of
Myelopathy: Refers to pathology of the spinal cord. When due to
trauma, it is known as spinal cord injury. When it is inflammatory, it is known
as myelitis. A disease that is vascular in nature is known as vascular
Myopathology: This means that the muscles of the body are malfunctioning
or are impaired from too much or too little nerve supply. This then means that
the muscle will either be contracting too much or not enough. Both of these
responses cause the muscle to fatigue more easily and loose power. Dependent
upon which muscle or muscles are involved this can cause instability in the
spine and hasten degenerative processes. If muscles can't work properly, the
result will be chronic pain, muscle fatigue and swelling.
Narcotic: Usually refers to opioids--pain-relieving drugs that are
derivatives of opium.
Nerve Block: Minimally invasive procedure involving an injection of
medication directly into or around a nerve or group of nerves to provide
regional pain relief.
Nerve Root: where the main nerves of the body leave the spinal cord and
pass out of the spinal canal through the intervertebral foramen, where they then
feed through the body either anteriorly (motor nerves) or posteriorly (sensory
nerves). The anterior divisions supply the front of the spine including the
limbs. The posterior divisions are distributed to the muscles behind the spine.
Neuralgia: Pain In the distribution of a nerve or nerves and caused by
nerve damage or dysfunction.
Neuritis: Inflammation of a nerve or nerves.
Neuropathic Pain: Pain produced by a malfunctioning of the (CNS)
central nervous system
Neuropathophysiology: When a joint or organ in the body is irritated, it
can reflect on to the nerves and irritate them. The nerves can also be irritated
by over stretching. The irritation to the nerves can either speed up or slow
down the message that the nerve is transmitting. This then alters the message to
the brain or the organ. As a result of this the organ or joint may not work
properly or the brain may interpret the condition of the joint or organ etc
Neuropathy: Disturbance of function or pathologic change in one or more
Neurosurgery: Any surgery that involves the nervous system which is
comprised of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Nociceptive: Response to a painful stimulus.
Nociceptor: A sensory nerve receptor that responds to pain.
Noxious Stimulus: A stimulus that is harmful or potentially harmful to
body tissue, and triggers a painful or unpleasant sensation.
Nucleus Pulposus: The semi-gelatinous tissue ( sort of like a combination
of jello and toothpaste) in the center of an intervertebral disc. It is
surrounded and contained by the annulus fibrosus which prevents this material
from protruding outside the disc space. This material contains highly irritating
and inflammatory chemicals which are a secondary cause of pain when they come
into contact with spinal tissue
Opioid or Opiate: A pain-killing drug chemically related to opium.
Orthopaedics (also Orthopedics): The branch of surgery broadly concerned
with the skeletal system including treatment of spinal disorders and peripheral
Ossification: The process of transforming cartilage-also known as fibrous
Osteoporosis: A disorder in which thinning of bone and reduction in bone
mass and density takes place which is due to the depletion of calcium and bone
protein in the body which in turn is a result of a number of different diseases
Pain: An unpleasant feeling that may be associated with disease or
Pain Threshold: The most minimal stimulation that a person recognizes as
painful—this varies from individual to individual.
Pain Tolerance Level: The greatest amount of pain a person can
Paresthesia: An abnormal sensation such as tingling or ‘pins and needles’
that may be uncomfortable, but not truly painful.
Pars Defect: Any defect occurring in that portion of the laminar plate
which connects the superior and inferior articulating processes. (facet Joints)
e.g. congenital weakness, crack or fracture. Usually associated with
Pathology: The study of disease states.
Pathophysiology: This means that the biochemical processes
(chemical day-to-day running) of the body are not working properly. This can
simply be the result of the nerve or the cells and/or organs malfunctioning
Pedicle: The part of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra. The
pedicle connects the vertebral body with the lamina.
Pelvic Obliquity: Deviation of the pelvis from the horizontal in the
frontal plane. Fixed pelvic obliquities can be attributed to contractures either
above or below the pelvis. (word per word from www.back.com )
Periosteum: A fibrous membrane that envelopes the surface of bone, except
at the end of the bones where it is covered with cartilage instead as part of a
joint. In children, periosteum is involved in the formation of new bone and
molding the configuration of bone where as in the adult the periosteum forms new
bone secondary to infection or injury.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): The nerves beyond the spinal nerve
Physical Therapy: A branch of rehabilitative health which uses treatments
usually consisting of exercising specific parts of the body such as the arms,
legs, hands, neck, to strengthen, regain proper motion, and rehabilitate the
musculoskeletal system to improve function.
Physiology: The science of the functioning of living organisms, which can
include movement, reproduction, anatomy to name a few.
Piriformis Syndrome: A condition in which the piriformis muscle contracts
or spasms and places pressure on the sciatic nerve, which passes through this
muscles, causing pain in the buttocks and/or along the back of the leg and into
the foot. These same symptoms can be found in normal causes of Siatica. This
condition is most common among women, and strangely is thought to be common
among both physically active athlectic individuals (such as bikers, runners and
walkers) and those who's jobs or activities involve prolonged sitting.
Also See: Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction and Siatica
Posterior: Located or positioned behind a structure. Also referred to the
human "behind" or rear.
Prosthesis: An artificial body part such as an artificial leg, arm or
foot, which replaces a missing or damaged body part.
"Prosthesis" can also used to describe some of the implants used in the body
like an elbow replacement device for example.
Proximal: Closest to or nearest to the center of the body.
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: While it is not totally accepted or clear
how the pain is caused, it is thought that a change in the normal motion of this
joint may be the cause of sacroiliac joint pain. It is also prey to normal
degenerative and inflamatory changes as is any other joint. This source of pain
can be caused by either too much or too little movement. The joint can become
irritated through abnormal movement occurring on a repetitive basis. Other
causes have been linked to heavy impact sports, through jumping and twisting,
and high impact accidents. The pain is typically felt on one side of the low
back or buttocks, and can radiate down the leg. The pain usually remains above
the knee, but at times pain can extend to the ankle or foot which can mimic
siatica. Hormones in pregancy can 'relax' joints and can be the cause of too
much movement in this joint causing pain and instability in gait (movement when
walking). Also see: Sciatica and Piriformis Syndrome
Sacrum: The large bone at the base of the spine, which is comprised of 5
fused sacral vertebrae, which have no intevertebral discs. It is part of the
spine that is part of the pelvis.
SCI: A medical term, in abbreviation form, standing for "Spinal
Sciatica: A lay term refers to a symptom and not to a disease -
indicating pain along the course of a sciatic nerve, especially noted in the
back of the thigh and below the knee.Sciatica. It usually starts from the
buttock and extends posteriorly (behind) down to the thigh, calf and foot.
Impinchment on the sciatic nerve can be caused by: herniated disc, lumbar spinal
stenosis, degenerative disc disease, or spondylolisthesis. Other conditions that
should also be considered are, Piriformis Syndrome and
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction. Symptoms that may constitute a medical emergency
include progressive weakness in the legs or bladder/bowel incontinence. Patients
with these symptoms may have "Cauda Equina Syndrome" and should seek immediate
medical attention. Also See: Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction and Piriformis
Scoliosis: The lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
Skeleton: The rigid framework of bones that gives form to the body, and
also serves to protect and support the soft organs as well as tissues, and
provides attachments for muscles.
Somatosensory: Sensory signals from the body—usually referring to signals
from the limbs rather than internal organs.
Spinal Canal: The bony channel - that is formed by the intravertebral
foramen of the vertebrae-which contains the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Spinal Column: See Spine.
Spinal Cord: The cord of nerve tissue, which is housed in the spinal
canal from which the spinal nerves emerge. It is a part of the Central Nervous
System. It functions as both the command post for carrying out the many reflex
actions that are independent of the brain, and as a route for the entire body's
nervous impulses that travel to and from the brain. There are thirty-one pairs
of spinal nerves that originate in the spinal cord with 8 from the cervical, 12
from the thoracic, 5 each from the lumbar and sacral regions and 1 from the
Spinal Disc: See Disc (Intervertebral).
Spinal Fusion: A surgical procedure to permanently unite two or more
vertebrae in the spine so that there is no longer motion occurring between them.
Spinal Kinesiopathology: This simply means that the movement of the spine
are not within the normal ranges. It restricts your ability to turn and bend.
The joints of the body are designed to move and when they are not moving
properly, this causes an irritation to the body. The irritation to the joint can
then reflect to the spinal nerve and can result in neuropathophysiology.
Spinal Nerves: Spinal nerve – formed by the dorsal nerve roots - (or back
of the spine) which supply the sensory system and ventral nerve roots- (or front
of the spine) supplying the motor nerve system of the cord, which pass in/out of
the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina
Spinal Stenosis: Decrease diameter of the spinal canal due to new bone
formation, which may result in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots. This
occurs most often in the lumbar spine(low back) and to a lesser extent the
cervical spine, and even less, the thoracic spine.
Spine: The flexible column of bone known as the vertebral column, which
surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The spine which is composed of 33
vertebrae, extends from the base of the skull all the way down to the tailbone.
The spine can be categorized into different regions, which are the cervical,
thoracic, lumbar spine and coccyx regions respectively. The first 24 vertebrae
are separated by intervertabral discs, and are held together by both muscles and
ligaments. The next five vertebrae are fused together to make up the sacrum, and
the last four are fused together to form the coccyx. The spine is also often
referred to as the backbone, vertebral column or spinal column.
Spondylitis: The inflammation of vertebrae.
Spondylolisthesis: An alignment abnormality of the spine in which one
vertebra is displaced with respect to another. Forward slip of of one vertebra
over another associated with a spondylolysis, high impact accidents especially
in the cervical area and/or degenerative changes.
Spondylolysis: Slipping forward of one vertebra over another with stress
fracture through the pars interarticularis. Due to repetitive flexion and
extension in the adolescent spine. Spondylolysis occurs more frequently in
children who are athletic than in sedentary individuals. It is reported to occur
in 11% of female gymnasts. Spondylolysis also occurs in a dysplastic form due to
underlying congenital abnormalities of the lumbar spine such as partial
sacralization of a lower lumbar vertebral body or to an elongated isthmus. A
defect in the neural arch between the superior and inferior facets of vertebrae
without separation at the defect and therefore no displacement of the vertebrae.
Fractures and slippage can also be attributed to high impact accidents generally
associated with the cervical spine.
Spondylosis: A degenerative disease (usually referred to as
Osteoarthritis) of the spinal column, especially one leading to fusion and
immobilization of the vertebral and leading to spinal stenosis without correct
intervention. It occures in essentially the entire aging population,
Sprains: a sprain is a partial tearing of a ligament caused by movement
beyond that ligament's normal range.
Strains: a strain is an overstretching of a ligament or muscles caused by
overexertion. (In this case there is no actual tear.)
Superior: Situated above, over top of, or directed upward toward the head
of an individual. The head is superior to the shoulders for example.
Tendons: Attach muscle to bone are composed of fibrous connective tissues
made up of densely packed collagen fibers. Injury to tendons can take a long
time to heal, as they have a limited blood supply.
Thoracic: The region of the spine that chest level, which is found
between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae regions. It consists of a total of 12
vertebrae, and are the locations at which the ribs attach.
Translation: Displacement of the Vertebral Body. It can describe
anterior, posterior, or lateral displacement.
Transplant: The implantation of bone tissue from one part of the body to
another, or from one individual to another. Transplant can also refer to the
transfer of an organ from one individual to another.
Transverse: Refers to medically defined 'lines' that divides the body
into the superior and inferior regions.
Trigger Point: An area in muscle or connective tissue that is
hypersensitive to touch or pressure.
VLDL: (Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein) A plasma lipoprotein that is
produced primarily by the liver with lesser amounts contributed by the
intestine, that contains relatively large amounts of Triglycerides compared to
protein, and that leaves a residue of cholesterol in the tissues during the
process of conversion to LDL — compare HDL, LDL
Vertebra: One of the 33 bony segments that comprise spinal column. There
are 7 vertebrae in the cervical region of the spine, 12 in the thoracic, 5 in
the lumbar, 5 in the sacral, and 4 in the coccyx. The plural of vertebra is
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